The Rules

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ORV
Posts: 33
Joined: Sat Mar 08, 2008 10:43 pm

The Rules

Post by ORV »

I going to try and occasionally show the membership some FIBA rules they may or may not know exist. Perhaps you may want to comment on them. You may even wonder if players and coaches are aware they exist or why players don't take advantage of it. So as long as I'm in isolation and on this side of the grass I'll start.

The first will be Rule 24.1.4 and in particular the last of 7 bullets under the headline ....

The following are not dribbles:

Throwing the ball against the backboard and regaining the ball.

Background..Used to be that throwing the ball against the backboard constituted a dribble. So if you stopped your dribble in the key for instance, then throwing it against the backboard and catching it was a violation (double dribble). It was like throwing the ball towards floor. In FIBA the basket you defend is your own or in your backcourt.

Let's go to the casebook for one of the interpretations. Example: After ending a dribble either in the continuos motion or standing still, A1 throws the ball against the opponents' or his own backboard and catches or touches the ball again before it has touched another player.

Interpretation: This is a legal play. After catching the ball, A1 may shoot or pass but may not begin a new dribble.

Sometimes I see players pick up a dribble in their own end in front of the backboard during a press. I have yet to see anyone throw the ball off their own backboard to himself to possibly avoid pressure and 8 second count. I have also not seen a player in the offensive key, boxed in with no place to go with 3 second call possibly imminent, use the backboard to his advantage to score or pass. As I said, I don't think many players are aware they can do this and if they aren't then should coaches be blamed. I admit it might be one of the most difficult movements in sports but I'm certain there are athletes out there who can pull it off, particularly in the offensive zone. One more thing for defence to worry about :)
ORV
Posts: 33
Joined: Sat Mar 08, 2008 10:43 pm

Re: The Rules

Post by ORV »

Hope everybody doing ok with the virus. Been doing stuff around the house to the point where there's little left inside to do. Need some some nice weather to start on the outside. Little bored today so I thought I'd write about something.

Just thinking of fouling strategy in basketball, especially the last two minutes (or more) of a close game when stopping the clock is essential for the team behind. First off the ref must decide if unsporting activity has taken place despite the fact we as refs know the strategy involved in fouling. Coming down the stretch of a game it's actually beneficial to the fouling/trailing team to get their team total to 5 or have the opponent go to the line.

Do I think it's important to know how to foul in order to prevent Unsporting calls? Certainly. Do I think coaches need to instruct players how to accomplish this? Absolutely. I can't think of another sport where players need to know how to commit an offence. I've heard soccer coaches teach players how to dive but I can't verify that.

As a referee I have to judge the contact, is it within the spirit and intent of the rules? A player can circumvent the rule by making an attempt for the ball. No pushing from behind, no bear hug, shirt/arm pull or severe contact. Basically what we have is an intentional foul that is disguised to look like a common foul. Everybody knows this and if to remain consistent officials need to call those fouls as they did during the game.

In case you're interested here is rule 37.1.1, the unsportsmanlike foul definition

An unsportsmanlike foul is a player contact foul which, in the judgement of an official is:

1. Not a legitimate attempt to directly play the ball within the spirit and intent of the rules
2. Excessive, hard contact caused by a player in an effort to play the ball or an opponent
3. An unnecessary contact by the defensive player to stop the progress of the offensive team in transition. This applies until the offensive player begins the act of shooting.
4. Contact by the defensive player from behind or laterally on an opponent in an attempt to stop the fast break and there is no defensive player between the offensive player and the opponent's basket. This applies until the offensive player begins his act of shooting.
5. Contact by the defensive player on an opponent on the playing court when the game clock shows 2:00 minutes or less in the 4th quarter and in each overtime, when the ball is out-of-bounds for a throw-in and still in the hands of the official or at the disposal of the player taking the throw-in.

These are all contact fouls remember, no technicals as T's are not involved with contact. If you're a coach remember this: a shove after the whistle is unsportsmanlike, not a technical, make sure refs get it right. Two unsportsmanlike, two technicals or one of each will see the player involved removed from the game. There's mention of last two minutes and there are a slew of rules designed specifically for that time period.

Point to ponder and I don't know the real answer, never saw it called or whether it qualifies as a Technical: Can a coach instruct a player to foul while play is taking place, using a voice loud enough for everyone (at least the refs) to hear?....it doesn't fall under unsportsmanlike definition. I've heard coaches do this on occasion.

If you have some tips regarding fouling to benefit your team, please share.
ORV
Posts: 33
Joined: Sat Mar 08, 2008 10:43 pm

Re: The Rules

Post by ORV »

Occasionally as a referee I see a situation develop where I may have to face a huge dilemma. Fortunately I haven't yet but I do see the potential at times. Again as I've reiterated before, coaches would be much better off knowing the rules. This is another case where breaking a rule may benefit.

Situation: Anywhere from say .3 to a few seconds remaining in game. A1 is shooting the last free throw. Team A is ahead by 1 or 2. Team B has 1 time out left and just fouled (common foul) A1 to get clock stopped. If the last free throw goes in, coach B will call time out and choose to have a throw-in in the front court. However coach A may decide to have his free throw shooter miss his last attempt without committing a violation, so that the clock will start when ball is rebounded by either team in the hope that time will expire. If team B gets the rebound they cannot call time out in this situation and will either need to go length of floor to get shot off or try a desperation heave. In most cases team's try to make free throws. In this situation a team could go ahead by 2 or 3 by making the shot. The fact that the other team still has a time out may change a coach's mind.

So if I'm coach B I'm better off having the last free throw made, thus a better chance to tie or win by calling time out, moving throw-in to front court and improve my chances of running a play to get a good shot off. What you don't really want is that free throw missed which means you've left a valuable time out at the table and your chances for a good shot as time expires greatly diminishes. So how could all this present a dilemma for an official?

Well if I'm coach B, I instruct one of my players to commit a lane violation, such as entering key when ball in shooter's hand. That way if the shot is missed and if ref doing their job, the shooter shoots again. No time off clock. Keep doing that until the shooter makes the shot and you can then call time out. But what if the shooter is trying to miss the free throw intentionally while not committing a violation? Let's say as a referee I eventually recognize that one team is intentionally violating while the other is trying to miss,(i.e. throwing ball hard at rim)? I might even hear a coach instructing them to miss. Who then is not playing within the spirit & intent of the rules? Would not want to be in that scenario.

It would be tough to call technicals, especially when you know the strategy to commit a common foul on a player in order to stop the clock has just occurred. There's no technicals or unsporting fouls for those plays if done right. Personally I think I would eventually call a T on the defence for delaying the game since their actions were first. Still by the time you've recognize what's happening, you've also realize the offence is deliberately missing the free throw. A deliberate miss might be harder to prove however. I could also ignore the defence violation but I'm probably going to get an earful from a coach and who knows, maybe an official protest. Still, if I'm a coach then this is a strategy to keep in my back pocket because one never knows when the chance to use it might arrive..

Not allowing live ball timeouts is one of the rules of FIBA that I don't like. I hate dilemmas based on having to judge what's ethical, especially if both teams are involved in some questionable behaviour. Live ball time outs would avoid the above situation altogether. I think FIBA should have a specific casebook interpretation for this scenario. If there is then I haven't seen it. The strategy I've outlined shouldn't even exist, rules should not encourage, allow or promote unethical practice.
ORV
Posts: 33
Joined: Sat Mar 08, 2008 10:43 pm

Re: The Rules

Post by ORV »

Another thing I should mention with respect to free throws and late game strategy. Same scenario as in previous post but with no time outs left for the losing team. If I was the defensive/trailing coach then I could try this....

Have my defensive person along the lane fake an opponent into committing a lane violation. The hope is that should the free throw shooter be unsuccessful, then the lane violation allows a throw-in for your team at free throw line extended. Much better than along your own end line should shot be made or trying to get up court while struggling for a rebound. Mind you, the fake must not disconcert the free throw shooter. There is no rule against faking an opponent into a lane violation. If you're the offensive coach and know this then you might not want anyone other than the free throw shooter present in that situation.

I find the free throw penalty rules as one of the most confusing sections in the entire rulebook. Here they are and see if you can interpret:

43.3.1 If a free throw is successful and the violation(s) is committed by the free-throw shooter, the point shall not count. The ball shall be awarded to the opponents for a throw-in from the free throw line extended, unless there is a further free throw(s) or possession penalty tone administered.

43.3.2 If a free throw is successful and the violation(s) is committed by any player(s) other than the free-throw shooter:
a) the point shall count
b) the violation(s) shall be disregarded
In the case of the last free throw, the ball shall be awarded to the opponents for a throw-in from any place behind that team's end line.

43.3.3 If a free throw is not successful and the violation is committed by:
a) A free-throw shooter or his team-mate on the last free throw, the ball shall be awarded to the opponents for a throw-in from the free-throw line extended unless that team is entitled to further possession.
b) An opponent of the free-throw shooter, a substitute free-throw shall be awarded to the free throw shooter.
c) Both teams, on the last free throw, a jump ball situation occurs.

What's so confusing? How would you interpret 43.3.3 ? It says 'the' violation. There's no (s). IMHO the implication is that it's not about two or more but 'the' violation as in one violation. Does that mean In a) that 'the' one specific violation by shooter or team mate takes precedence?....But.... In c) how can both teams commit "the" violation? For both teams to commit there has to be more than (the)one violation. Does it mean on unsuccessful last free throw that no violation takes precedence over another, no matter if shooter or team mate commits it? I would think the FT shooter is part of the team.

Personally I'm totally confused by this rule. To me 'both teams' includes the shooter but people tell me I'm wrong. So if it's my job to watch the shooter, I just whistle it dead immediately if he/she violates, award the ball to the other team at free throw line extended. No one has ever argued it so I must be right, eh? :D

Bothers me that I interpret the words differently than a fellow official. Shouldn't ever be this way. I think this rule needs to be rewritten into something a lot more comprehensible.
ORV
Posts: 33
Joined: Sat Mar 08, 2008 10:43 pm

Re: The Rules

Post by ORV »

Searched YouTube the other day and came across a video of a HS game in the USA in which an official was verbally accosted by no less than 6 coaches from one team during a game. I have to admit the bench entourage for some teams seem to outnumber the players on the bench. So decided to sift through the rule book and share with everyone exactly what's expected relating to bench personnel. I'm not dealing with warnings, fouls, penalties, etc.

(2.4.5) Team Bench Areas: There must be 16 seats available in each team bench for the head coach, the assistant coaches, the substitutes, the excluded players and the accompanying delegation members. Any other person shall be at least 2m behind the team bench.

(4.2.1) Each team shall consist of:
a) No more than 12 team members entitled to play, including a captain
b) A head coach
c) A maximum of 8 accompanying delegation members, including a maximum of 2 assistant coaches who may sit on the team bench.

(5.4) Head coaches, assistant coaches, substitutes, excluded players and accompanying delegation members may enter the playing court, only with the permission of an official, to attend to an injured player before he is substituted.

(5.5) A doctor may enter the playing court, without the permission of an official if, in the doctor's judgement, the injured player requires immediate medical treatment.

(7.3) The head coaches, assistant coaches, substitutes, excluded players and accompanying delegation members are the only persons permitted to sit on the team bench and remain within their team bench area. During playing time all substitutes, excluded players and accompanying delegates shall remain seated.

(7.4) The head coach or the first assistant coach may go to the scorer's table during the game to obtain statistical information only when the ball is dead and the game clock is stopped.

(7.5) The head coach may communicate in a courteous manner with the officials during the game to obtain information only when the ball is dead and the game clock is stopped.

(7.6) Either the head coach or the first assistant coach, but only one of them at any given time, is permitted to remain standing during the game. They may address the players verbally during the game provided they remain within their team bench area. The first assistant coach shall not communicate with the officials.

(18.3.1) Time-out Procedure: Only a head coach or first assistant coach has the right to request a time-out. He shall establish visual contact with the scorer or he shall go to the scorer's table and ask clearly for a time-out, making the proper conventional sign with his hands.

(19..3.1) Substitution Procedure: Only a substitute has the right to request a substitution. He (not the head coach or the first assistant coach) shall go to the scorer's table and ask clearly for a substitution, making the proper conventional sign with his hands, or sit on the substitution chair. He must be ready to play immediately.

(36.1) Rules of Conduct: The proper conduct of the game demands the full and loyal cooperation of the players, head coaches, assistants coaches, substitutes, excluded players and accompanying delegation members with the officials, table officials and commissioner, if present.

(38.2.6) Physical actions by players or any person permitted to sit on the team bench, which could lead to damaging of game equipment, must not be permitted by officials

Fighting:
a) Substitutes, excluded players or accompanying delegation members who leave the team bench area during a fight, or during any situation which may lead to a fight, shall be disqualified.
b) Only a head coach and/or first assistant coach are permitted to leave the team bench area during a fight, or during any situation which may lead to a fight, to assist the officials to maintain or to restore order. In this situation, they shall not be disqualified.
c) If a head coach and/or first assistant coach leave the team bench and neither assist nor attempt to assist the officials to maintain or to restore order, they shall be disqualified.

By the way an excluded player is one who has fouled out. Some of these rules don't suit the HS school games as most gyms aren't designed for them. I assume in 5.5 that the doctor is one of medicine. I've used 7.5 many times and it's pretty simple...coach doesn't communicate courteously then I walk away while letting him/her know why....speeds game up. Over the years I've not developed a thin skin but the attitude whereby if your not nice I'm either not going to talk or if I do then you won't like the consequences. Quoting a rule is also good.

Interesting to note that the substitute initiates the substitution, not the coach....this rule is commonly ignored in HS/club games. We understand new coaches, rule changes and the transition from one rule set to another.

The only thing that worries me is if something terrible happens in a game then could a referee be held liable by the judicial system for not enforcing all the rules all the time....even if it's impossible to do so.
ebe
Posts: 1117
Joined: Thu Nov 20, 2003 1:44 am

Re: The Rules

Post by ebe »

ORV wrote: Wed Apr 08, 2020 12:28 pm I could also ignore the defence violation but I'm probably going to get an earful from a coach and who knows, maybe an official protest. Still, if I'm a coach then this is a strategy to keep in my back pocket because one never knows when the chance to use it might arrive..
That is exactly what you should do ignore the defensive violation. Doesn't matter if the coach gets mad about it and it is certainly not something a coach could protest.
ebe
Posts: 1117
Joined: Thu Nov 20, 2003 1:44 am

Re: The Rules

Post by ebe »

ORV wrote: Sat May 09, 2020 1:01 pm (2.4.5) Team Bench Areas: There must be 16 seats available in each team bench for the head coach, the assistant coaches, the substitutes, the excluded players and the accompanying delegation members. Any other person shall be at least 2m behind the team bench.
(4.2.1) Each team shall consist of:
a) No more than 12 team members entitled to play, including a captain
b) A head coach
c) A maximum of 8 accompanying delegation members, including a maximum of 2 assistant coaches who may sit on the team bench.
This is rarely if ever applied. Shouldn't make a big deal about it unless you have people on the bench who are acting like idiots then you deal with it. At the CCAA Nationals you are restricted to 20 people (20 seats available)
ORV
Posts: 33
Joined: Sat Mar 08, 2008 10:43 pm

Re: The Rules

Post by ORV »

ebe wrote: Sun May 24, 2020 7:50 pm
ORV wrote: Wed Apr 08, 2020 12:28 pm I could also ignore the defence violation but I'm probably going to get an earful from a coach and who knows, maybe an official protest. Still, if I'm a coach then this is a strategy to keep in my back pocket because one never knows when the chance to use it might arrive..
That is exactly what you should do ignore the defensive violation. Doesn't matter if the coach gets mad about it and it is certainly not something a coach could protest.
Glad someone reading this stuff. Exactly, this would not be protestable. However coaches have been known to write the league or the official's board etc and express their feelings, sort of a letter to the editor protest :)
A team may file a protest if its interests have been adversely affected by:

An error in scorekeeping, time-keeping or shot clock operations, which was not corrected by the officials.
A decision to forfeit, cancel, postpone, not resume or not play the game.
A violation of the applicable eligibility rules.
Rule 47.8 is what really protects the officials. Been waiting for a chance to print this one.

The implementation and interpretation of the Official Basketball Rules by the officials, regardless if an explicit decision was made or not, is final and cannot be contested or disregarded, except in cases where a protest is allowed.

My favourite rule and I have memorized and used it on occasion.
ORV
Posts: 33
Joined: Sat Mar 08, 2008 10:43 pm

Re: The Rules

Post by ORV »

Wrote the CABO FIBA 2021-22 rules exam for officials. 50 questions, open book, got 48 correct. Two hours long and it's generally 15 Q's easy, 15 Q's should be able to figure out, 15 tough Q's and 5 Q's that are extremely tough. For the extremely tough I include Q's that don't appear in recent casebook, are poorly written or contain some ambiguity.

Leading up to final exam, IAABO supplies its members with a number of 10 question quizzes and OABO a 50 question test exam. CABO has a 20 question exam you can practice on when on their site. To be honest, I did see some of those quiz and test questions on the final exam so that made it a little easier for those who bothered to try the practice Q's prior to writing.

There are some situational questions a referee might not see in a career. I'd like to discuss a couple but don't want to give any part of the exam away to those who still have to write. Deadline Dec 13. In our association, if you don't pass then there are no game assignments and people have failed to either get the grade required or missed writing the exam altogether... thats it ....you're done. Not sure if there is a makeup or if so, when.

Officials are rated at certain levels by CABO with Level 1(recreational) for example only a 30 question exam. As I got older and stayed strictly with HS and Club ball I'm at Level 2 needing only 80% to pass. Sounds easy but it really isn't. Levels 3,4 &5 require greater exam performances. Glad exam is over and awaiting the boy's HS season start. The gals are done for this year.
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